The name of the plant Cannabis was originally derived from a Scythian or Thracian word, which was lent to Persian as kanab, then to Greek as krov vvαβsp (kánnabis) and later to Latin as cannabis. Taken from the Latin cannabis (“hemp”), from the ancient Greek khnvαbetas (kánnabis). Research shows that the effect of cannabinoids could be modulated by aromatic compounds produced by the cannabis plant, called terpenes. The best-studied cannabinoids are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN).
The distribution of the endocannabinoid system in the brain is interesting, since the same areas of the brain are also involved in psychoses, particularly schizophrenia. Anandamide binds to central cannabinoid receptors (CB) and, to a lesser extent, to peripheral cannabinoid receptors (CB), where it acts as a partial agonist. A fifth endocannabinoid, virodamine or O-arachidonoylethanolamine (OAE), was discovered in June 2002. These example sentences are automatically selected from various online news sources to reflect the current usage of the word “cannabinoid”. Pharmaceutical or medicinal cannabinoids come in a variety of products, including raw (botanical) cannabis that can be vaporized for medicinal purposes, as well as oils, liquids and oral sprays.
The endocannabinoid system is a unique communication system found in the brain and body that affects many important functions. Research has found that the cannabis plant produces between 80 and 100 cannabinoids and around 300 non-cannabinoid chemicals. The final effect on the endocannabinoid-releasing cell depends on the nature of the conventional transmitter being controlled. Over the past decade, research on endocannabinoids has been one of the fastest-growing fields in psychopharmacology, opening the door to discovering new drugs for a wide variety of health problems, ranging from metabolic disorders to glaucoma and schizophrenia.
Although in this function of intercellular signaling they are similar to the well-known monoamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, endocannabinoids differ from them in many ways. Cannabinoids can be administered through smoking, vaporization, oral ingestion, transdermal patch, intravenous injection, sublingual absorption, or rectal suppository. The mechanisms and enzymes that underlie endocannabinoid biosynthesis remain elusive and remain an area of active research. CB1 receptors: effects of endocannabinoids and the release of D-9-THC from anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to inhibit glutamate (Glu), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acetylcholine (Ach), dopamine, noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT).
The natural compounds in the cannabis plant are also known as phytocannabinoids, of which D-9-THC is the main psychoactive ingredient and have been extensively investigated in both animals and humans.