The main active component of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa is delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC). In humans, psychoactive cannabinoids cause euphoria, increased sensory perception, tachycardia, antinociception, concentration difficulties and memory impairment. No matter how you use cannabis, it can cause immediate and long-term effects, such as changes in perception and increased heart rate. Over time, smoking cannabis can cause chronic coughing and other health problems.
Anxiety and paranoia are common complaints among marijuana users. Clinical anxiety and depression are also more likely, but scientists still don't know exactly why. The medication may worsen symptoms of more serious mental illnesses, such as psychosis and schizophrenia. It's also linked to a higher likelihood of substance abuse.
These effects could worsen if your genes make you more likely to suffer from mental illness or addiction. Please enter a valid date or select it with the date selector. After several decades of research, scientists studying the effects of marijuana made several important discoveries. Not only did they identify the active ingredient in marijuana, but they also discovered where and how it works in the brain through a new system called the endocannabinoid (EC) system.
The CE system, named after the cannabis plant Cannabis sativa and its active ingredient delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is a unique communication system in the brain and body that affects many important functions, including the way a person feels, moves and reacts. Natural chemicals produced by the body that interact within the EC system are called cannabinoids and, like THC, they interact with receptors to regulate these important body functions. So what makes the CE system unique and how does the impact of THC in this system affect a person's memory, the risk of accidents, and even addiction? Review Figure 1 and the steps below to take a closer look at the components of the CE system, how they work and the effects of THC. Brain cells (neurons) communicate with each other and with the rest of the body by sending chemical “messages”.
These messages help coordinate and regulate everything we feel, think and do. Chemicals (called neurotransmitters) are usually released from a neuron (a presynaptic cell), travel through a small gap (the synapse), and then bind to specific receptors located in a nearby neuron (postsynaptic cell). This prompts the receiving neuron to act, which triggers a series of events that allow the message to be transmitted. But the EC system communicates its messages in a different way because it works “the other way around”.
When the postsynaptic neuron is activated, cannabinoids (chemical messengers of the EC system) are manufactured “on demand” from lipid precursors (fat cells) already present in the neuron. They are then released from that cell and travel back to the presynaptic neuron, where they bind to cannabinoid receptors. So why is it important? Because cannabinoids act on presynaptic cells, they can control what happens next when these cells are activated. In general, cannabinoids work as an “attenuation switch” for presynaptic neurons, limiting the number of neurotransmitters (p.
ex. When a person smokes marijuana, THC overwhelms the EC system and quickly attaches to cannabinoid receptors throughout the brain and body. This interferes with the ability of natural cannabinoids to do their job of adjusting communication between neurons, which can imbalance the entire system. See Figure 2 to see areas of the brain with cannabinoid receptors, and then place those areas in the table to study some of the different effects of THC on the user.
Any materials you want to save can be downloaded between now and June 30. The binding of endocannabinoids to these receptors alters the release of neurotransmitters in the brain, which in turn produces various effects on mood, pain perception and other functions. Cannabinoids interact with cannabinoid receptors to regulate a variety of functions in the body, such as inflammation, pain perception, mood and memory. While smoking marijuana can inflame the lungs, substances called cannabinoids seem to decrease swelling in some other tissues.
There are hundreds of cannabinoids, such as delta-8-THC, THC, CBN, CBG, just to name a few that are gaining ground. They are similar to the cannabinoids found in cannabis plants (phytocannabinoids), but have different effects. Both marijuana and a pill version of THC called dronabinol appear to help relieve pain by attaching to parts of the brain cells called cannabinoid receptors. Synthetic cannabinoids differ from real cannabis plants in that they contain a variety of chemical compounds that are not found in the same amounts in natural cannabis plants.
Both cannabinoids were found to act as inhibitors of COX-2, enzymes that create molecules that induce inflammation. Their effects are simulated rather than based on natural cannabinoid receptors, and can be dangerous. They interact with the body's endocannabinoid system, which is responsible for a variety of physiological and cognitive processes. .
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