These cannabinoids have gained the focus of research because of their abundance in the cannabis plant or because of their important role in the impact of cannabis on the body. THCV was originally discovered in 1973 and is gaining importance because of its great benefits. This cannabinoid is found in very low amounts in the cannabis plant. If consumed in large doses, it has the power to induce psychoactive effects, but its production is limited in any strain of cannabis.
The reason behind this effect is the binding of THC to the CB1 receptors present in the endocannabinoid system of our brain. Effects such as euphoria, short-term memory impairment, dry eyes, dry mouth, increased appetite, etc. Are these some of the most common side effects of this cannabinoid?. The moment THC Delta 9 oxidizes, it breaks down into other cannabinoids.
One such compound is known as Delta 8 THC. All unopened products can be returned within 30 days for a full refund. There are a lot of cannabinoids, and each one seems to offer something unique. Surprisingly, they all come from the cannabinoid acid CBGA, also known as the parent cannabinoid.
The world of cannabinoids may seem far-fetched at times, and maybe some of them are. But without detailed and thorough research, we can't know what these incredible molecules are fully capable of. Even so, as far as we know so far, a large part of the cannabinoids in the cannabis plant have impressive attributes that make them more than worthy of further study. There is no single way for cannabinoids to work.
What unites them all initially is that they are all descended from cannabigerolic acid (CBGA). From here on, certain genetic processes and arrangements cause plants to express certain cannabinoids in greater or lesser abundance. Delta-9-THC is the most famous cannabinoid, and with good reason. With the psychotropic effect that people know and love, it is this compound that produces feelings of euphoria and relaxation in many users.
Used for thousands of years all over humanity, the effects of THC have been known for a long time. THC produces a powerful psychotropic effect. It does this by binding directly to the brain's CB1 receptors. And how does this cause a high? By causing a decrease in the concentration of the second messenger molecule, cAMP, through the inhibition of adenylate cylease.
Much research is being done on THC and its potential uses, especially as a potential treatment for multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative disorders. However, the potential uses are believed to be much broader than this, and are being studied in relation to many physical and mental illnesses. However, of all the cannabinoids, THC also appears to be the most likely to cause harm. Although the exact mechanisms are unknown, there is a relationship between THC and the increase in certain mental illnesses.
What is not known is whether it is an inherent characteristic of THC that interacts with the human brain or an aberration that depends on certain individuals. Cannabidiol has conquered the world in recent years and is becoming as well-known as THC. Interestingly, THC and CBD are very different molecules. While THC has an affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, CBD has almost no direct interaction with them.
Rather, CBD appears to bind to the serotonin 1A receptor and influences the production of anandamide. This is believed to be what is behind most of the physiological effects of CBD. Unlike THC, CBD does not cause any psychotropic effects, although some users report that they feel more mentally and physically relaxed after ingesting it. Interestingly, CBD may not only not bind to the CB1 and CB2 receptors, but it also prevents other compounds from binding to them.
CBD has been shown to reduce the effects of THC in both the short and long term. The potential of CBD to counteract the effects of THC has led to the former being studied in great detail. Research on its relationship with antipsychotic effects has been and is continuing. Similarly, there is additional research on other areas of mental health, such as anxiety and depression.
Many cannabinoids are being studied to discern their relationship with the brain, including the possible uses of neurodegenerative disorders (CBD). Significant research has been carried out to investigate whether or not it may have neuroprotective properties (the ability to slow the degradation of brain cells). As research progresses, the uses of CBD will become clearer. THCV, or tetrahydrocannabivarin, is a cannabinoid that is gaining increasing popularity.
Like THC, it causes a psychotropic effect. Although very little is known, it is said to produce a clear and stimulating effect. Its interaction with the body has not yet been clearly clarified, but it is believed to be a neutral CB1 receptor antagonist and a CB2 receptor agonist. As such, it directly affects the functioning of the ECS, such as THC.
Despite its lack of fame, THCV is not a particularly rare cannabinoid, nor does it only occur in small amounts. Certain cannabis strains have been found to contain up to 16% THCV on a dry weight basis. Trials are underway to find out if THCV could be a useful treatment for weight loss. It is believed that suppressing CB1 receptors at lower doses could influence appetite and metabolism in a beneficial way.
Interestingly, in studies with mice, it has been shown that the body does not develop a tolerance to THCV. If this could be replicated in humans, the cannabinoid could be administered as a long-term treatment, without having to increase the dose, reducing the likelihood of problematic dependencies. CBDV (Cannabidivarin) is a compound similar to CBD, but it affects the body in different ways. Although not as well known in popular culture, it is a fairly well-known cannabinoid (at least compared to some others).
It is believed to appear in much higher concentrations in indicative cannabis strains, particularly in native Indica varieties. CBDV affects TRPV receptors and the creation of the endocannabinoid 2-AG. Like CBD, it also appears to block CB1 and CB2 receptors. TRPV receptors are also called vanilloid or capsaicin receptors because, in the first case, certain beneficial compounds found in vanilla bind to TRPV receptors; and in the second case, the anti-inflammatory compound capsaicin (found in chilies) also has an affinity for them.
It also appears that CBDV may inhibit diacylglycerol (DAG) activity. This is the main enzyme involved in the synthesis of 2-AG. By inhibiting this, it reduces the activation of the CB1 and CB2 receptors. Clearly, with such varied effects, CBDV could have some potential clinical applications.
As for TRPV receptors, drugs that completely deactivate them are considered to be very dangerous, since they make the user feel no pain. However, like other receptors, they become insensitive when overstimulated, making them less susceptible to pain, without eliminating it completely. As a result, it is believed that CBDV can stimulate these channels effectively, without causing any initial pain. However, CBG does not appear in high concentrations in many cannabis plants.
In fact, it often only reaches around 1%. But breeders are now cultivating and stabilizing cannabis strains with higher concentrations of CBG, which will facilitate the study of the cannabinoid. Because it only comes in small amounts, it's quite difficult to understand the effects of CBG. What we do know is that it acts as an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, which intervenes in the perception of pain.
Although little is known, it is believed that CBG may have some effect on pain or sensitivity to pain. Like CBDV, it can stimulate certain receptors and make them less sensitive to painful stimuli. The decarboxylated CBCA product, cannabichromene (CBC), is one of the lesser-known cannabinoids. It was first discovered in 1966, but due to strict legislation, it has been the subject of very little research.
CBC is thought to be non-psychotropic, as it interacts with CB1 and CB2 receptors in a similar way to CBD. Similarly, it appears to have an affinity for TRP channels, as does CBDV. Cannabinol (CBN) is an attractive cannabinoid because of the way it is created. This illusory cannabinoid only appears in small amounts in fresh, growing cannabis plants; however, when a plant begins to age beyond what most people would consider its maturity (the optimal point for harvesting), CBN concentrations start to increase.
This occurs when THCA is oxidized and converted to CBNA. When CBNA is exposed to heat and light, it undergoes a decarboxylation process and is converted to CBN. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is the precursor to THC. As THCA decarboxylates, it is converted to THC.
Interestingly, although some of this occurs in the plant, much of it occurs during the process of smoking, vaping or cooking. So your joint is really rich in THCA until the flame converts it to THC. Despite being the acid precursor to THC, THCA does not have the same psychotropic effects as THC, since the molecule has little affinity for CB1 (or CB2). That doesn't mean it's useless.
Research has been conducted on the potential neuroprotective properties of THCA. That said, the body of research is minimal, so it's too early to say with certainty what its capabilities are. This is true for many cannabinoid acids, since, until recently, they were not available for study. Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) is the precursor to CBD mentioned above.
Like THC and CBC, it comes from CBGA (cannabigerolic acid). Synthase enzymes interact with CBGA to convert the compound to CBDA. Like CBD, CBDA has no psychotropic effects, since it does not bind to the CB1 or CB2 receptors. However, it appears to have some effect on serotonin receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR).
Like many cannabinoid acids, research is minimal and the potential uses of CBDA have not yet been revealed. That said, researchers seem particularly interested in this cannabinoid, and studies are underway on its therapeutic potential for conditions such as anxiety, inflammation and nausea, to name a few. CBGA has no psychotropic effects in and of itself, but it manages to give rise to many other effects that cannabis can express. Although research is limited, there is little evidence that CBGA can inhibit the enzyme aldose reductase, which is linked to heart problems, and that it may have a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells.